Cross-border exchange and sharing of generation reserve capacity
This paper develops a stylized model of cross-border balancing. We distinguish three degrees of cooperation: autarky, reserves exchange and reserves sharing. The model shows that TSO cooperation reduces costs. The gains of reserves exchange increase with cost asymmetry and the additional gains of reserves sharing decrease with correlation of real-time imbalances. The model also shows that voluntary cross-border cooperation could be hard to achieve, as TSOs do not necessarily have correct incentives.