Sustainable transition to sustainability
This project examines some of the key factors necessary to transform Norway to a low-emission society: First, which of the available climate policy options will be chosen and implemented in a democratic society? Second, green policies may fail to work as expected if actors respond differently to the policy than anticipated. How may social, psychological and other motivations influence the effects of common policy instruments in the climate field? Third, most investments in green R&D take place abroad. This suggests that Norway should have a two-sided strategy: push for international agreements that spur green R&D, and also implement domestic instruments to trigger more, and efficient, green R&D. How can an international green R&D agreement be designed, and how should Norway design its green R&D policy? Finally, Extraction of Norwegian oil and gas tend to increase emissions of CO2, thereby undermining the goal of a reaching a low-emission society. However, extraction of natural gas may reduce the use of coal and thus contribute to lower global emissions in the short run. On the other hand, extraction of oil and natural gas reduce energy prices, which reduces incentives for investments in green R&D. How should Norway, with its stated goal of becoming a low-emissions society, balance these concerns?